유발 하라리 "코로나 이후의 세계" 전문 1편은 아래 링크에서 보실 수 있습니다.
소리내서 읽는 자료로 만들었기 때문에 중요 단어, 문장 등에 밑줄과 볼드체 등으로 강조했고,
전적으로 제 기준으로 강조하였음을 알립니다.
The soap police
Asking people to choose between privacy and health is, in fact, the very root of the problem.
Because this is a false choice. We can and should enjoy both privacy and health.
We can choose to protect our health and stop the coronavirus epidemic not by instituting totalitarian surveillance regimes(전체주의적 감시 체계), but rather by empowering citizens.
In recent weeks, some of the most successful efforts to contain the coronavirus epidemic were orchestrated by South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore. While these countries have made some use of tracking applications, they have relied far more on extensive testing, on honest reporting, and on the willing co-operation of a well-informed public.
Centralised monitoring and harsh punishments aren’t the only way to make people comply with beneficial guidelines. When people are told the scientific facts, and when people trust public authorities to tell them these facts, citizens can do the right thing even without a Big Brother watching over their shoulders.
A self-motivated and well-informed population is usually far more powerful and effective than a policed(감시받는), ignorant population.
Consider, for example, washing your hands with soap.
This has been one of the greatest advances ever in human hygiene(위생).
This simple action saves millions of lives every year. While we take it for granted(당연하게 여기지만), it was only in the 19th century that scientists discovered the importance of washing hands with soap.
Previously, even doctors and nurses proceeded from one surgical operation to the next without washing their hands.
Today billions of people daily wash their hands, not because they are afraid of the soap police,
but rather because they understand the facts. I wash my hands with soap because I have heard
of viruses and bacteria, I understand that these tiny organisms(유기체) cause diseases, and I know that soap can remove them.
But to achieve such a level of compliance(준수) and co-operation(협력), you need trust.
People need to trust science, to trust public authorities, and to trust the media.
Over the past few years, irresponsible politicians have deliberately(고의적으로) undermined(훼손하다) trust in science, in public authorities and in the media.
Now these same irresponsible politicians might be tempted(유혹을 받는다) to take the high road to authoritarianism(권위주의), arguing that you just cannot trust the public to do the right thing.
Normally, trust that has been eroded(침식된) for years cannot be rebuilt overnight.
But these are not normal times.
In a moment of crisis, minds too can change quickly.
You can have bitter arguments with your siblings(형제들) for years, but when some emergency occurs,
you suddenly discover a hidden reservoir(저수지) of trust and amity(호의), and you rush to help one another.
Instead of building a surveillance regime, it is not too late to rebuild people’s trust in science, in public authorities and in the media. We should definitely make use of new technologies too, but these technologies should empower citizens. I am all in favour of monitoring my body temperature and blood pressure, but that data should not be used to create an all-powerful government.
Rather, that data should enable me to make more informed personal choices(정보에 입각한 개인적인 선택), and also to hold government accountable for its decisions. (결정에 대해 책임질 수 잇도록)
If I could track my own medical condition 24 hours a day, I would learn not only whether I have become a health hazard to other people, but also which habits contribute to my health.
And if I could access and analyse reliable statistics on the spread of coronavirus, I would be able to judge whether the government is telling me the truth and whether it is adopting the right policies to combat the epidemic.
Whenever people talk about surveillance, remember that the same surveillance technology can usually be used not only by governments to monitor individuals — but also by individuals to monitor governments.
The coronavirus epidemic is thus a major test of citizenship(시민권).
In the days ahead(앞으로), each one of us should choose to trust scientific data and healthcare experts over unfounded conspiracy theories(근거없는 음모론) and self-serving(자기 잇속만 챙기는) politicians.
If we fail to make the right choice, we might find ourselves signing away our most precious freedoms, thinking that this is the only way to safeguard our health.
We need a global plan
The second important choice we confront is between nationalist isolation(국수주의적 고립) and global solidarity.(세계적 연대)
Both the epidemic itself and the resulting economic crisis are global problems.
They can be solved effectively only by global co-operation.
First and foremost, in order to defeat the virus we need to share information globally.
That’s the big advantage of humans over viruses.
A coronavirus in China and a coronavirus in the US cannot swap tips about how to infect humans.
But China can teach the US many valuable lessons about coronavirus and how to deal with it.
What an Italian doctor discovers in Milan in the early morning might well save lives in Tehran by evening.
When the UK government hesitates between several policies, it can get advice from the Koreans who have already faced a similar dilemma a month ago.
But for this to happen, we need a spirit of global co-operation and trust.
Countries should be willing to share information openly and humbly seek advice, and should be able to trust the data and the insights they receive.
We also need a global effort to produce and distribute medical equipment, most notably(특히) testing kits and respiratory machines.
Instead of every country trying to do it locally and hoarding(저장, 비축) whatever equipment it can get, a co-ordinated global effort could greatly accelerate production and make sure life-saving equipment is distributed more fairly.
Just as countries nationalise(국영화) key industries during a war, the human war against coronavirus may require us to “humanise”(인류화) the crucial production lines.
A rich country with few coronavirus cases should be willing to send precious equipment to a poorer country with many cases, trusting that if and when it subsequently needs help, other countries will come to its assistance.
We might consider a similar global effort to pool medical personnel.
Countries currently less affected could send medical staff to the worst-hit regions of the world, both in order to help them in their hour of need, and in order to gain valuable experience.
If later on the focus of the epidemic shifts, help could start flowing in the opposite direction.
Global co-operation is vitally needed on the economic front too.
Given(감안할 때) the global nature of the economy and of supply chains, if each government does its own thing in complete disregard(무시한 채) of the others, the result will be chaos and a deepening crisis.
We need a global plan of action, and we need it fast.
Another requirement is reaching a global agreement on travel.
Suspending all international travel for months will cause tremendous hardships(엄청난 어려움), and hamper(방해하다) the war against coronavirus.
Countries need to co-operate in order to allow at least a trickle(천천히 흘러가다) of essential travellers to continue crossing borders: scientists, doctors, journalists, politicians, businesspeople.
This can be done by reaching a global agreement on the pre-screening of travellers by their home country.
If you know that only carefully screened travellers were allowed on a plane, you would be more willing to accept them into your country.
Unfortunately, at present countries hardly do any of these things.
A collective paralysis(집단마비) has gripped the international community.
There seem to be no adults in the room.
One would have expected to see already weeks ago an emergency meeting of global leaders to come up with a common plan of action.
The G7 leaders managed to organise a videoconference only this week, and it did not result in any such plan.
In previous global crises — such as the 2008 financial crisis and the 2014 Ebola epidemic — the US assumed the role of global leader.
But the current US administration has abdicated the job(책무를 거부하다) of leader.
It has made it very clear that it cares about the greatness of America far more than about the future of humanity.
This administration has abandoned even its closest allies.
When it banned all travel from the EU, it didn’t bother to give the EU so much as an advance notice(사전통지) — let alone consult with the EU about that drastic measure.
It has scandalised(의혹을받다) Germany by allegedly(이른바 추정되는) offering $1bn to a German pharmaceutical company to buy monopoly rights to a new Covid-19 vaccine.
Even if the current administration eventually changes tack(방침, 방향) and comes up with(찾아내다,생각해내다) a global plan of action, few would follow a leader who never takes responsibility, who never admits mistakes, and who routinely takes all the credit for himself while leaving all the blame to others.
If the void(공백) left by the US isn’t filled by other countries, not only will it be much harder to stop the current epidemic, but its legacy will continue to poison international relations for years to come.
Yet every crisis is also an opportunity.
We must hope that the current epidemic will help humankind realise(깨닫다) the acute(극심한) danger posed by(야기되는) global disunity(분열).
Humanity needs to make a choice.
Will we travel down the route of disunity, or will we adopt the path of global solidarity?
If we choose disunity, this will not only prolong the crisis, but will probably result in even worse catastrophes in the future.
If we choose global solidarity, it will be a victory not only against the coronavirus, but against all future epidemics and crises that might assail(공격을 가하다) humankind in the 21st century.
Yuval Noah Harari is author of ‘Sapiens’, ‘Homo Deus’ and ‘21 Lessons for the 21st Century’
영어읽기 자료로 소개하려고 넣었는데
큰소리로 읽어보면서, 공감이 많이 되었네요.
어떤 정부를 믿을 것이며, 어떤 정치인을 믿어야 할 것인지,
우리는 상호 신뢰가 없이는 아무것도 할 수 없다는 것을 이해하고
인류 최대의 문제 앞에서 우리는 어떤 선택을 해야 할 것인지에 대해
생각해볼 수 있었던 좋은 글이었던 것 같습니다.
코로나 바이러스 이길 수 있고, 이겨내면, 더 강한 우리(Global)가 될 수 있습니다.